There aren't any south of the border except for fossils and names in 2 countries.
Java's Borobudur has makara as do many Javanese buildings. Makara may be kadimarkara, kadi from Old Java kaḍiwas meaning a type of sea-fish and Sanskrit कधि kadhi ocean. माकर mAkara sea-monster, crocodile. This suggests a fossil salt-water crocodile of Lake Eyre, South Australia.
http://www.anthropologysocietysa.com/ho ... obbs_C.pdf
Kardimarkara, a crocodile shape with four legs and fossil crocodiles. p 43-48.
Fossilised tree associated with kardimarkara p 37.
https://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Page:Nat ... a.djvu/826 p 826, 827.
"This legend professes to account for the origin of the fossilised marsupials and other creatures which are found in several places in the Lake Eyre district, and also for that of the mound springs which are so marked a feature of that part of Australia. These fossils are called by the tribes-people Kadimarkara, creatures which in the Mura-mura times descended from the sky-country to the earth, by means of great trees which grew on the eastern shores of Lake Eyre, and supported the sky. " Makara are on Javanese water spouts.
Wabma Kadarbu ( Mt Hamilton South Australia), which translates as 'snake's head', is a mound water-spring.
https://www.google.com/search?q=Wabma+K ... e&ie=UTF-8
Skt kaTabhU cheek or region of the temples of an elephant.
https://books.google.com.au/books?id=Th ... 22&f=false
"..the Dieri perform magical ceremonies for the multiplication of their totemic animals, no doubt with the intention of thereby increasing the food-supply of the tribe... To judge from the description of him, he seems to be one of those fossil beasts or reptiles which are found in the deltas of rivers flowing into Lake Eyre. Such fossil bones are called kadimarkara by the Dieri." _James George Frazer - 2011.
https://www.researchgate.net/publicatio ... Kirtimukha p 318.
"The arch or architrave of a makara torana was known in Sanskrit literature as mattavarana, “untamed wild elephant,”.. Sometimes the lotus vine is visualized as kalpalata, a wish-granting vine bearing precious ornaments and cloths as its fruit and comes out of the mouth of an elephant, a makara, and other symbols representing water and mud.. The fountains are tastefully yet meaningfully rendered as the rain river Ganga or Sarasvati, which brings many varieties of creatures including cattle to the earth as they descend from heaven at the beginning of the monsoon. All symbolic and decorative elements on the ceiling, including aquatic and semi aquatic creatures such as fish, water buffaloes,and elephants, also appear around the entrances to Indic temples, including the Ajanta cave shrines, because the entrances of Indian shrines and temples represent the atmospheric gate of heaven."
Kati Thanda-Lake Eyre National Park .
https://www.parks.sa.gov.au/parks/kati- ... ional-park
OJava kuṭi (Skt hut, cottage) Buddhist monastery.
thāni "elected village councillor".
Tamil thandha "given".
Tamil kuti is a village community. "In Sri Lanka, a group of kutis (caves and huts) in Balangoda forest areas have a sick ward and a library for the meditative Buddhist monks at the central meeting place. Each kuti owns a separate village area for daily alms round (pindapata). Some of these are Bundala Kuti and Moragaha Ulpatha Kuti ."
(dead link) see final paragraph in
In the other country, Kamilaroi, there may be a legendary river-monster to which a crocodile name was attached. Makara are sometimes depicted as gharial, a fresh-water crocodile known in Sumatra-Sulawesi Indonesia and which can attack people today. This seems likely to be garriya. And in modern times the idea of a "crocodile" would be given by Aboriginals to its description.
"The only mention of a crocodile in the sky is in Parker and Lang (1905: 95), where she describes in the Milky Way a “dark shadow of a crocodile”, which seems strange, as she was located in an area (Narran Lakes) where the last known crocodile was Pallimnarchus, a crocodile from the Pleistocene, extinct over 40,000 years BP (Gillespie and David, 2001: 42). Parker names it Kurreah, and in the current Kamilaroi/Euahlayi language there is a word, garriya, “crocodile”. p 11,12.
The Astronomy of the Kamilaroi People ... by RS Fuller · 2013 ·
Old Java language (800-1300CE) dictionary
Anthropology of Dogmatics.
The Roman Inquisition in 1615 concluded that heliocentrism was foolish, absurd, and heretical. Galileo was found "vehemently suspect of heresy" and forced to recant. His Vatican funding was slashed as with heretical archaeology departments which think about controversial Dreaming inquiries. An anonymous Historical Society which observed the transit of mulga and steel across a Synbone sphere denies that it saw anything. Bohemian scholar Martin Horky wrote about Galileo's telescope that "below, it works wonderfully; in the sky it deceives one." Jesuit scholar Father Clavius wrote that the Moon remained a sphere by postulating a perfectly smooth and invisible surface stretching above its scarred hills and valleys. Perfect.
Terra Nullius "no-one's land"
gladius nullus "no sword".
extraneis nullus "no foreigners" .
Although Bruce Pascoe over-stated some of the descriptions in early colonial records, there were evidently some Indigenous villages with storage of harvested seed. On Bribie Island Qld, "Unlike most of the natives of Australia as yet discovered, they have fixed habitations, dwelling in little villages of six or seven huts in a cluster. Some of them are of great length, extending upwards of eighty feet, and covering a considerable space of ground .... One of them was in the form of a passage, with two apartments at the end. The arches were beautifully turned, and executed with a degree of skill which would not have disgraced a European architect. " Strange, ‘Moreton Bay Courier’, 17 June 1848.
This degree of skill also existed in SE Asia and with Sanskritic contacts, 'Australia' was evidently within a wider world. Sanskritic cultures included Mitanni in Asia Minor with some Skt. loan-words in New Zealand. There are speakers of languages such as Yorta Yorta who have a vocabulary of Skt-Javanese loans such that a modern construct meaning "Jesus" is the expression manu(tha) wandan .
Old Java mānuṣa (Skt) man, human being . wanda (Skt praising, extolling) . Skt vandanA mark or symbol impressed on the body, reverence.
Buddhist tradition possibly was known in central NSW in Wiradjuri country. "Rev. W. Watson's Journal from Apl 1st to June 30th 1835 p2. ".. to celebrate Waganna (a dance) to ( god) Baiame .. when Baiami gave the "Gudthi" (song) which they now chant to him, after the first celebration of the "Waganna" . He also commanded them to use small Twigs about 9 inches in length which they were to beat against each other in the "Waganna' ..These Twigs are named "Mudthir" from Mudthirra which signifies repeated beating or, thrashing. .." It was intended to heal smallpox. .( Carey and Roberts 2002).
Mudra is an "instrument used for stamping or sealing".
Old Java mudra (Skt mudrā) " particular position of the fingers (with sacred function
and meaning ); with supernatural efficacy." Tibetan Tantraya Buddhism uses a short
dagger in ritual healing with " vigorous touching." " The phurba appear in different
rituals concerning divination and healing. In the middle of these rituals “the jhankri
takes hold of his ritual dagger and starts to dance furiously directing the phurba
towards all the places where an evil presence could be lodged. To heal his patient he
vigorously touches the part of the body where he is suffering with the triangular blade of
his wooden knife. This is adorned with snakes - symbols of fecundity and powerful
telluric forces - being fought by an eagle, ally of the divine forces of heaven." (Kovacs 2012 ).
"I can only say that if those are true etymologies, then certainly mudrā (hand gesture) is a tantric practice although gāthas (songs) are pan-Indic, and vacana, sentence, sound, is a term used in tantric traditions, which talk a lot about mantras and the power of the word. Tantric traditions were all pervasive in medieval South-East Asia so I suppose some influence on Australian traditions is possible.
Professor Gavin Flood FBA
Senior Research Fellow, Campion Hall, Oxford University
Professor of Hindu Studies and Comparative Religion, Oxford University."
ABC TV suggests that mulga cuts bone.
Concluding comments: "Could something made of wood actually be responsible? Weapons like these had a sharp edge and were used as clubs or thrown as missiles." William 'Badger' Bates of Baakandji: "Our old people back then did not have a blade like that. If that carbon date is 700 years old, there is something wrong somewhere". "And the carbon dates suggest no, it's 700 years old. That means that there are weapons being used by people in western New South Wales that are creating signatures that look like, you know, sword wounds" said Dr Michael Westaway... "The luminescence age tells us that the soil infilled that skull well before Europeans were in this country. So it does rule out that this individual was killed by a sword." 'Indonesia' had iron swords from 900 CE.
'Antiquity' went further and published :
"..the main wound in the frontal is around 150mm long.. stone axes 77 +- 20mm.. edged club 127mm.. boomerang blade 381-457mm. On this basis , the boomerang is the most probable candidate." p 1327 para 2.
"..the frontal wound observed in Kaakutja most closely resembles that produced by an African 'Samburu' sword". p 1328.
If a piece of wood is the length of a bone excision, then wood cuts bone. Wood then is equal to an iron sword. A three-week piglet weighs similar to an eagle, is equal and therefore piglets can fly.
A test was done by Armidale Historical Society, after requesting consent by local elders (of Gumbaynggirr and Anaiwan) which was given. The test at Armidale PCYC 29 April 2021 was by Hamish Brown, martial arts teacher, striking a Northern Territory mulga boomerang on Synbone forensic skull with a rubber skin which imitates human skull for identifying weapon trauma in court trials. Both boomerang strikes failed to cut. A steel blade sliced the Synbone in two tests, as it does to human skull-bone. Another two tests by boomerang on pig-skull, one by ANU Canberra, had previously failed to cut the bone but steel did cut it. A cow shoulder bone was tested by a butcher at Armidale with this sharpened, trimmed mulga boomerang using the force of a bone cleaver and it failed to cut. These examples indicate that the quoted comments from the ABC report were correct: boomerang is not able to slice into bone like a sword does.
"The application of a hardened wooden edge to a brittle bone will not slice the bone, which means a localised shearing of fibres, it will crack and crush the bone, involving a distribution of impact forces onto the extended shape of the bone, not the local impact point. The bone would shatter first, as a preferred lower-energy route to failure. Sharp steel blades can shear bone fibres and will cause more damage that way than by impact.. I can't explain how the same damage as a sharp sword could be done with even a hardened wooden tool or weapon. ." Mike Evans, UNE Physics and Electronics.
"You can quote me but you wouldn't extrapolate outside of anything I've said." Dr Mike Evans.
'Since 2008 Mike has concentrated on teaching in Physics, Engineering (structures, concrete technology) and Maths/ Statistics (including public health/ epidemiology in the school of Rural Medicine).'
The skull cut is 150mm long from forehead to jawline, in a straight line.
"In conclusion, this study has found [cattle] Bos taurus scapulae to be an appropriate proxy to use as it has a similar morphological structure and densities as human frontal bones which can aid in ballistic, forensic, and surgical recreations".
("Justyna, I'm an amateur historian, testing frontal excision of human outer cortical plate. Would you agree that fresh cow scapula is suitable?").
Yes, sure – it’s a good proxy in this type of research as per the paper you refer to.
Dr Justyna Miszkiewicz
Head of Biological Anthropology
The Australian National University."
The evidence is that a steel sword was used in NSW during the 1200s. There appear to be around 100 Sanskritic loan-words in southern Australia, evidently from Old Java language of 800-1300CE and some Dayak and Sulawesi terms. Bundjalung and Dharawal people of NSW remember that boats arrived, with possible OJ loans used in the legends. Gold production was probably the reason for the 'Indonesian' settlement in Madagascar as with the Agusan gold statue of Mindanao in Philippines and Javanese gold-mining there in the 14th century.
Hamish Brown, martial arts teacher. "It just bounced off".
Your teacher Hamish Brown has been training in Martial Arts for more than 20 years attaining Black Belt standard in multiple styles and was ranked No.1 in Australian ISKA tournament fighting in 1999.
Nathan , Meating Place butchers, shop 14 Armidale Central. "Nothing happened".
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